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Soy Protein and Its History

2018-05-25 08:36:56

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Soy protein is a protein that is isolated from soybean. It is made from soybean meal that has been dehulled and defatted. Dehulled and defatted soybeans are processed into three kinds of high protein commercial products: soy flour, concentrates, and isolates. Soy protein isolate has been used since 1959 in foods for its functional properties. Recently, soy protein popularity has increased due to its use in health food products, and many countries allow health claims for foods rich in soy protein.

 

Soy protein is generally regarded as being concentrated in protein bodies, which are estimated to contain at least 60–70% of the total soybean protein. Upon germination of the soybean, the protein will be digested, and the released amino acids will be transported to locations of seedling growth. Soybeans contain a small but newly very significant 2S Albumin storage protein. Legume proteins, such as soy and pulses, belong to the globulin family of seed storage proteins called legumin and vicilins, or in the case of soybeans, glycinin and beta-conglycinin. Soybeans also contain biologically active or metabolic proteins, such as enzymes, trypsin inhibitors, hemagglutinins, and cysteine proteases very similar to papain. The soy cotyledon storage proteins, important for human nutrition, can be extracted most efficiently by water, water plus dilute alkali (pH 79), or aqueous solutions of sodium chloride (0.52 M 30-120 g/l) from dehulled and defatted soybeans that have undergone only a minimal heat treatment so the protein is close to being native or undenatured.

Soy protein has been available since 1936 for its functional properties. In that year, organic chemist Percy Lavon Julian designed the world's first plant for the isolation of industrial-grade soy protein called alpha protein. The largest use of industrial-grade protein was, and still is, for paper coatings, in which it serves as a pigment binder. However, Julian's plant must have also been the source of the "soy protein isolate" which Ford's Robert Boyer and Frank Calvert spun into an artificial silk that was then tailored into that now famous "silk is soy" suit that Henry Ford wore on special occasions. The plant's eventual daily output of 40 tons of soy protein isolate made the Soya Products Division into Glidden's most profitable division.

 

At the start of the Second World War, Glidden sent a sample of Julian's isolated soy (alpha) protein to National Foam System Inc. (today a unit of Kidde Fire Fighting) which used it to develop Aero-Foam, used by the U.S. Navy for fire fighting and referred to as "bean soup". While not exactly the brainchild of Dr. Julian, it was the meticulous care given to the preparation of the soy protein that made the fire fighting foam possible. When a hydrolysate of isolated soy protein was fed into a water stream, the mixture was converted into a foam by means of an aerating nozzle. The soy protein foam was used to smother oil and gasoline fires aboard ships, and was particularly useful on aircraft carriers. It saved the lives of thousands of sailors.

 

In 1958, Central Soya of Fort Wayne, Indiana, acquired Julian's Soy Products Division (Chemurgy) of the Glidden Paint Company, Chicago. Central Soya's Bunge Protein Division, in January, 2003, joined/merged with DuPont's soy protein business Solae, which in 1997 had acquired Ralston Purina's soy division, Protein Technologies International (PTI) in St. Louis. On May 1, 2012 DuPont announced its complete acquisition of Solae from Bunge,

 

Food-grade soy protein isolate first became available on October 2, 1959 with the dedication of Central Soya's edible soy isolate, Promine D, production facility on the Glidden Company industrial site in Chicago. An edible soy isolate and edible spun soy fiber have also been available since 1960 from the Ralston Purina Company in St. Louis, who had hired Boyer and Calvert. In 1987, PTI became the world's leading maker of isolated soy protein.

 

(Shandong Wonderful Bio-technology Co.,Ltd ,the soy protein expert, soy peotein manufacturer of China)